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Importance of Time and Clocks


The clock is one of the most important devices of all civilization. It is simply a gadget that we use to tell the exact time of day. Its name was borrowed from a Greek term that meant the ringing of a bell. Now since clocks would make some sort of sound after every hour, it was dubbed with this name.

We are living in a civilized time that has put such a heavy importance on time. Everything is dependent on it. That is how important therefore that the clock is. Due to this importance there are clocks all around us. In a developed area you cannot walk for five minutes before you see a clock somewhere.

The clocks we have in our society today all have a common ancestor. Their common ancestor is the sun dial. It would cast the sun’s shadow around its fixed centre to show us the time. The sun dial had a huge disadvantage that today’s clocks do not have. It only worked during the day.

The water clock came soon after the sun dial. As a matter of fact it is not known exactly when both these clocks were first invented. Let us just say that it was a long time ago. The sun dial was used to set the water clock which would then tell fairly accurate time. Yes, even through the night.

The pendulum clock brought a fresh sense of accurate timing in the world of clocks. It would rarely lose time like the water clock. It therefore became a huge success. I am sure we have all at one time or the other seen one. Many of us just know it as the grandfather clock.

The next evolution in clocks came with the electrical era. The clocks would have electric motors wound electromagnetically that would run for days. There are many forms of electrical clocks still in use today. One does not have to worry about winding them every six hours.

With the introduction of electricity into the world of clock manufacture, came even further advancements. There was the invention of the batteries. The two together led the inventors to digital clocks. These were clocks that did not need mechanically moving components. They are now the most common clocks in the outdoors of most urban places.

The alarm clock is another important development of the simple clock. You set the time that you want to wake up and it will go off at that time. There are very old models that were highly mechanical but today we have even digital ones that will wake you up to your favorite tune.

We may categorize the alarm clock with the auditory clock. A lot of people call the auditory clock the talking clock. You just press a button and it says the time out loud for you. This is very good for example when you are asleep and do not want to get up and switch on the lights.

This last one is not literally a clock. It is symbolically a clock. It is called the doomsday clock. It counts the threats to human existence in the number of minutes before the clock strikes twelve. These threats are for example the nuclear weapons we build. There will be total human annihilation when the doomsday clock strikes midnight.



Source by Anna Deak

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Lanzarote – Hotels, Apartments and Villas


The popular holiday destination of Lanzarote is blessed with a year round warm climate. It is because of this that holiday makers flock to the island all year round. This means that the island enjoys year round tourism and there is very little 'seasonal' drop in the tourism trade.

People who fly to Lanzarote will usually stay in one of three different types of accommodation. A luxury Hotel, an Apartment either within a complex or standardone or a Villa / Bungalow. The type of accommodation is really down to personal preference and possibly budget, but you do not have to spend the earth on accommodation to enjoy your holiday in Lanzarote, as lets face it, you should not be spending too much time in it!

Luxury Hotels in Lanzarote tend to be spread out rather than built up. This is due to a building restriction on the land that means that any building must not be taller than a certain height. Unfortunately, it does appear that some of the larger chains of hotels on the island have been built illegally and contravene the regulations, but I do not see them disappearing any time soon!

In a luxury hotel you can expect to get well looked after from the moment you arrive. From porters taking your luggage to a friendly welcome at the check-in desk. The rooms are generally well furnished and kept and include a bed (or beds), TV, minibar and shower / bathroom. Meals in the hotels are usually served in a dining area, but of course in many cases it is never to far to vent out into the resort where restaurants are to found a plenty.

If you fancy something a little more 'practical' then a self contained apartment might be for you. There are many different apart-hotel complexes on Lanzarote that usually have their own pool (or pools), on site facilities such as shops and bars, and they give you the freedom to decide if you want to eat in or out. Apartments usually come with a living area, kitchen area, bathroom and bedroom – so its like living at home on holiday!

Villas and Bungalows are generally the same as apart-hotels apart from the fact that they are privately owned and will usually be furnished to a higher standard. They will also sleep more bodies. For larger families or 'groups' Villas are usually a very cost effective way to rent accommodation for your holiday as you tend to pay for the Villa, and not for the number of people staying in it. Most Villas in Lanzarote tend to have a small private pool and terrace area where you can enjoy the weather that the island has to offer.

The choice of accommodation is usually down to personal preference, what you can afford and what type of holiday you are looking for.



Source by Ian Sheldon

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Living in a City Center


Some people say that city center is the best place to live. One has an easy access to all the amenities of life. Additionally, city centers are the places where all the business, educational, official and trade activity centers are located. The commuting time is nothing as compared to those living in the suburbs. There are, however, some big disadvantages of living in the city center as well. Following lines would give you a great comparison in this regard.

Advantages

The biggest advantage of living in a city-center is the easy access to all the business, trade and educational offices. City-centers are planned in such a manner that they become the hub of everything related to commercial, official or educational fields. Most universities and colleges are located in the city-center and students from suburbs have to commute long distances to reach their alma maters. Similarly, professionals have to take public or private transport to reach the city-center. Monthly fares of public transports, despite all the discounts, are quite expensive these days.

On the contrary, people living in the city-center do not have to incur any transportation costs. In most cases, all the famous buildings, business centers and universities are located within a walking distance. There are no expenditures in transportation costs and time wasted in travelling. Additionally, one can save money on dining costs as one can simply head back to home to eat during lunch breaks. People from the suburbs are unfortunate in this regard. They have to eat lunch from the push carts or restaurants and this entails some big spending, even if the rates are affordable. Monthly expenditures on food bills are enough to cause a big dent in your monthly budget.

Disadvantages

There are also many disadvantages of living in a city-center. First of all, there is no sense of privacy as the city centre remains active till late night. Secondly, the house rents are sky high in the city-center. Everyone wants to live there and homeowners take full advantage of this phenomenon. Another disadvantage of living in a city-center is the lack of suburban activities and neighbourhood attitude that is prevalent in the suburbs. There are hardly any parks and open spaces where one can breathe fresh air. In most cases, the environment is polluted because of thousands of cars that throng the roads and alleys. Similarly, the proportion of trees and shrubs is far less than a typical suburb that is usually green and pollution free.

The sense of community is also lacking in the city-center as people remain busy in their own affairs and do not pay any attention to their neighbours and friends. Another down point of living in the city center is the higher prices of commodities. As compared to suburbs, that are usually located close to farmer markets; city centers are cramped places with high property rents. Shops often pass on that high price to their customers.



Source by James L Harrison

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Types of War


War has been defined in various ways. For present purposes, we may define was sustained sustained intergruop violence in which state military forces participate at least one side or on both sides in the case of interstate war and generally on only one side is the case of civil war. In a world of standing military forces it is hard to say exactly where peace ends and war begins. A military battle that is not sustained over time may or may not be considered a war. The brief Chinese-Soviet border clashes in March and July 1969, for example, entailed several small battles at a few points along the border, in which some hundred of people were killed. Similar ambigous is a long term violent struggle involving irregular forces, such as in Northern Ireland. There, uniformed British military forces waged a sustained violent struggle with a non state army, the Irish Republican Army (IRA), until a cease-fire that has held on and off since 1995.

Thus, many different activities are covered by the general term war. Consequently, it is not easy to say how many wars are going on in the world at the moment. Wars are very diverse. Several types of war tend to arise from different situations and play different types of roles in bargaining over conflicts. Starting from the largest wars, we may distinguish the following main categories.

Hegemonic War is a war over control of the entire world order – the rules of the international system as a whole, including the role of world hegemony. This class of wars is also known as global war, world war, general war or systemic war. The last hegemonic war was World War II.

Total War is warfare by one state waged to conquer and occupy another. The goal is to reach the capital city and force the surrender of the government, which can then be replaced with one of the victor's choosing. The 2003 Iraq War is a classic case. Napoleonic Wars, which introduced large-scale conscription and geared the entire French International economy toward the war effort. In total war, the entire society mobilized for the struggle, the entire society of the enemy is considered a legitimate target.

Limited War includes military actions carried out to gain some objective short of the surrender and occupation of the enemy. For instance, the US led war against Iraq in 1991 retook the territory of Kuwait but did not go on to Baghdad to topple Saddam Hussain's government. Many border wars have this character; after occupying the land it wants, a state may stop short and defend its gains.

Civil War refers to war between transactions within a state trying to create, or prevent, a new government for the entire state or some territorial part of it. The US Civil War of the 1860's is a good example of a secessionist civil war.

Guerrilla War which includes certain kinds of civil wars is a warfare without front lines. Irregular forces operate in the mid of and often hidden or protected by, civil populations. The purpose is not to directly confront an enemy army but rather to harass and punish it as as to gradually limit its operation and effectively liberate territory from its control.

In short, Wars are constantly taking place between states as well as in the states since theception of history itself. It will remain to the world exists because of various desires of individuals and state-actors as well.



Source by Xaeema Eckbaull

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Submit Your URL to Chinese Search Engines


It is certainly true that the Internet is dominated by the English language – it has been estimated that 75% of all Internet pages worldwide are written in English. But surprise, surprise – the world's No. 1 language in terms of number of native speakers is also the most difficult to read – Chinese, with about three times as many native speakers (and readers) as English. China has the second greatest number of Internet users in the world (behind only the United States), and its Internet market is one of the world's fastest-growing. Furthermore, its buoyant economy is impossible to ignore – every year millions are added to its relatively affluent middle class. You'd be surprised at how many Chinese can read English – small in proportion to total population, but large in number. You may also be surprised at how many Chinese yuppies ("Chuppies") carry a Visa (the credit card, not the kind of visa that is stamped on a passport!).

Do you have a product that might sell well in China? That's a hard question to answer, but as a one-sentence primer, affluent Chinese gravitate toward any product with name-brand appeal or snob appeal, and any product that is closely associated with the United States (sarcastically dubbed the "Mickey Mouse Syndrome" by certain envious economic rivals). If you are going global, you can not afford to ignore China – and if your business has a website, it should be searchable in China.

Following are the URLs for site submission to ten Chinese search engines. The sites are all written in Chinese, but if you can get past the language barrier, anything is possible …

Top 10 Chinese Search Engines

1. Baidu: http://baidu.com/search/url_submit.htm

2. Sina: [http://iask.com/guest/add_url.php]

3. Sohu: [http://db.sohu.com/regurl/regform.asp?Step=REGFORM&class=]

4. Yahoo China: http://cn.yahoo.com/docs/info/suggest.html

5. Google China: http://www.google.com/intl/zh-CN/add_url.html

6. Sobao: [http://search.sobao.com/Computers_and_Internet/Personal/]

7. Tianwang: http://home.tianwang.com/denglu.htm

8. China-Holiday: [http://china-holiday.com/newterms/hall/it/sort.asp?sortid=259]

9. Wangluobing: [http://www.net7b.com/net7b_/denglu/index.asp] o

10. Sunwukong: http://www.sunwukong.cn/add.php

The first six of the foregoing are major players, but the rest are marginal and may well be out of business by the time you read this (then again, you never know …).
Happy hunting!



Source by David Carnes

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Facts About Gallbladder Disease


Gallbladder disease is one of the leading causes of problems with digestion that result in hospital admissions. Did you know that around 10% of the population (on average) in most Western countries has gallstones? Most of these are "silent" but about 4% of patients with stones develop symptoms each year. For about half of them, the symptoms reoccur within 12 months. More men than women suffer from acute gallbladder infection (cholecystitis), whereas more women than men experience gallstones (men have more kidney stones), and married women with children have more gallstones than unmarried women. The term "gallbladder disease" is in one sense a misnomer, for it is the liver, bile ducts and gallbladder that form the system that enables your body to digest fats and all are likely to participate in gallbladder problems.

I have always said that doctors generally see health problems as conditions with symptoms requiring drugs, whereas surgeons see health problems as conditions require the knife, and when a patient is admitted with abdominal discomfort surgeons are often keen to remove the gall bladder as it is believed that it 'serves very little purpose' and that the patient can "live comfortably without it". This is a ridiculous and very untrue notification however, and I want you to think twice about having your gallbladder removed, because over half of people I have seen who had their gallbladder removed still had the same digestive problem they started with in the first place unresolved , yet now without their gallbladder. Once it is out that is it, it does serve a purpose like every organ you were born with and having your gallbladder removed will affect your health to some degree. For some patients, the removal of their gallbladder had a major consequence on their health down the track. For others, it was a minor controversy.

A surgeon I once spoke to many years ago mentioned that the gallbladder operation was one frequently performed in larger hospitals by the younger surgeon to "bring them up to speed" in the operating room. He said that it was a reliably easy operation lasting thirty to forty minutes enabling them to gain surgical experience before they move onto "bigger and better things" as far as abdominal surgery is concerned. I can not help wondering if all the gallbladder operations performed are really that necessary, because they are so quick to take it out these days. The apprentice mechanic will first be introduced to the engine by learning to replace the spark plugs before he is allowed to work deeper into the engine. If the plugs were removed, carefully cleaned and then replaced they generally last a long time. But then again, today more than half the stuff we buy is made in China and it is "chucked" as soon as it is even slightly defective!

What is the gallbladder's function?

Your gall bladder's main function is to collect and concentrate bile produced by the liver that the body uses to digest fats. Think of bile a bit like you would dishwashing liquid. Have you ever tried to wash dishes with fat or grease on them in water without dishwashing liquid? Not really effective is it? Not at least until you squirt a little dishwashing liquid into the warm water then they are clean in no time. Your gallbladder makes plenty of its own type of "degreasing liquid" called bile. Bile becomes up to twelve times more concentrated in the gallbladder (and hence much more effective) than it was in your liver. Think about this, with your gallbladder gone, your liver now has to produce, store and secrete bile. It can do this but not as effectively as it can without that little purse called the gallbladder hanging by its side.

The liver makes between 600 – 900 mls of bile each day, and what is not sent during meals to the duodenum (beginning of your small bowel) directly via the liver's main duct to emulsify fat, it is diverted through a smaller duct (branching off the main liver duct) to the gallbladder for storage until required. When fat in a meal reaches the duodenum (where most of the food you eat is digested and absorbed), hormones enter the circulation and along with nerve signals, stimulate the gallbladder to contract. This contracting, assisted by the small intestine's contractions, induces the gallbladder's small round muscle and the stored bile is propelled into the duodenum where it mixes with food from your stomach and pancreatic juices from the pancreas by way of the pancreatic duct. If you eat a fairly fatty meal (fish and chips for example) your gallbladder can empty completely within one hour. It is this combination of bile and fats that can make one feel "queasy" at times after a fatty meal.

Bile itself is made up of water, salts, fatty acids, lecithin, cholesterol, bilirubin, and mucus and has two main functions. The first function is to help in the absorption and digestion of fats, and the second to eliminate certain waste products from the body, especially excess cholesterol and the haemoglobin from worn out red blood cells, which have an average lifespan of 3 months.

In particular, the bile

(1) increases the solubility of fat-soluble vitamins, fats and cholesterol to assist in their absorption,
(2) stimulates secretion of water by the colon to help move its contents along,
(3) is a medium for excretion of bilirubin (the chief bile pigment) as a waste product of destroyed red blood cells, other waste products, medical drugs and their degradation products, and other toxins.

Bile salts are in fact re-absorbed into the small intestine, and re-secreted into the bile after extraction by the liver. All bile salts in the body re-circulate some 10 to 12 times a day by means of this so-called enterohepatic circulation. In each circulation small amounts of bile salts enter the colon where bacteria break them down for excretion with the feces.

Who is the greatest at risk of gallstones?

o Female gender: women outnumber men at least 2: 1.
o Family history
o Forty or more years of age
o 3 children or more
o Diet: low calorie, low cholesterol, low fat. (especially a diet like this after diet high in fat)
o Diet: previously high in refined carbs, alcohol, chocolate, chips, etc.
o Smoking
o High cholesterol history
o Constipation history
o Rapid weight loss
o Obesity
o Food allergy history
o Dehydration due to not enough water
o Liver problems like cirrhosis or past hepatitis inflammation
o Sensitive to penicillin antibiotics

Signs and symptoms of gallbladder problems

I have seen many women in the clinic who have for years on and off never felt quite well in terms of their digestion. Many have experienced a low grade ill feeling, a digestive discomfort which was put down to indigestion, constipation or diarrhoea or even a "grumbing appendix". They go on for years and years with digestive symptoms and never realize that they may be related to a gallbladder problem. That's because they are so inter-related with other digestive symptoms and too easy for their doctor to say: "You are fine; there is nothing to worry about". Constipation is one of the most commonly missed complaints, and so is farting. Do not be embarrassed here, we all fart, some men (and plenty of smallish children) enjoy boasting about it but women do it too and are generally totally embarrassed. Flatus is most common in bed when you first lie down, during the night or when you get up. This is because your bowel changes its position and gas more easily escapes through the anus with the large intestine in a horizontal rather than in a vertical position. Do not laugh, but do you sometimes feel fat, frumpy and farty and at times "sicky" after eating a fatty meal like fish and chips or chocolate? Does your partner joke about how much you "let off"? Then you may very well have a gallbladder issue.

The Four F's

Have you heard about the four f's? We learn when we study medicine that women who are "fat, fertile, forty and flatulent" are often the gallbladder girls. They are much more prone to having gallstones or a sluggish liver and gallbladder. The following list provided here may be related to gallbladder but please bear in mind that it could also be something else. The first four symptoms mentioned are the most indicative of gallbladder issues. It is not necessary to have all or many symptoms to have gallbladder problems but the more you have this list, the more confirmation you have that your gallbladder is involved. Please note that it is still advisable to consult your GP for an accurate diagnosis.

Signs and symptoms of impending gallbladder problems (If you answered yes to the first four (with an asterisk) go to your health-care professional for a more accurate diagnosis.)

  • Pain or tenderness under the rib cage on the right side, could be central too *
  • Pain between shoulder blades, central but could be under the shoulder blades *
  • Stools light or chalky colored *
  • Indigestion after eating, especially fatty or greasy foods *
  • History of gallstones or gallbladder removal in your family
  • Weight gain after recent digestive problems or after gallbladder removal
  • Frequent use of antacids
  • Nausea
  • Dizziness
  • Bloating
  • Farting
  • Burping or belching up gas easily after meals
  • Feeling of fullness or food not digesting
  • Diarrhea (or alternating from soft to firm)
  • Constipation (or simply skipping a day here or there)
  • Headache over eyes, especially right
  • Bitter fluid comes up after eating, could be a slight reflux and very subtle
  • Frequent use of laxatives

Being big is actually in itself a big risk factor in gallbladder problems, and women with a BMI (body mass index) of 30 or greater are more than double at risk than women who have a BMI of 25 or less. Although a decrease in weight reduces the risk of gallstone formation, there is a 15 to 25 percent increase in gallstone formation during or immediately following weight loss! I have seen this with several patients over the years; they have lost weight and are proud of if only to experience digestive problems and then a bad bout of pain within twelve to eighteen months after the weight loss. A major heart study in America discovered that women with Type 2 Diabetes were almost twice as likely (41.8 percent versus 23.1 percent) that non diabetics to have gallstones, and the risk was highest among the 30 to 59yr old group.

I always ask a person these standard questions when they come in with a (suspected) gallbladder dysfunction – "Did you loose weight recently, say in the past two years?" "Have you been on a fat free diet lately?" "What kind of foods / drinks do you like to habitually have?" By asking the right questions, you would be surprised how many will actually tell you what is wrong with them, and their answers can point right to the heart of the problem. In my observation, the main factors leading to gallbladder attacks and dysfunction are obesity (and rapid weight loss (for example1 pound a week); "fat-free" diets are especially bad.

Poor dietary habits – especially many fatty and fried foods, alcohol, too much dairy food like cheeses and full cream milk, refined sugars and starches, high protein foods (in excess), food allergies, parasites, long-term use of birth control pills, and a sedentary (couch potato) lifestyle. The Atkins diet craze caused a lot of gallbladder problems, for example. Once these factors are operating, bile produced in the liver and flowing through the biliary ducts into the gallbladder becomes too thick, the bile ducts may then become unstructured, gravel and stones may form (90% of all gallstones are cholesterol), and the whole biliary system may become clogged. Other causative factors include insufficient water consumption, a weak immune system (increases likelihood of infection in the gallbladder), as well as diabetes and various liver diseases.

Prevention of gallbladder problems lies in controlling obesity, diet and adequate intake of consuming water, and the use of appropriate physical exercise. Louise Hay, an interesting lady who wrote the famous book "Heal Your Life" way back in 1976 with regard to how emotions can trigger physical problems, complaints that anger, aggressiveness, and bitterness can result in gallbladder problems. Keeping the immune system strong and the liver and small intestine healthy is very important too. Let's look now at some non-medical alternatives once gallbladder problems are evident, and also how to prevent this problem in the first instance.

Food allergies

Often finding and eliminating food allergies can stop frequent attacks of gallbladder pain and prevent unnecessary surgical removal. In one study, avoidance of allergens relieved symptoms in 100% of 69 patients with symptomatic gallstones or post-cholecystectomy (after the operation) syndrome (uncontrolled trial cited by Dr. Alan Gaby, USA). I'm not convinced just testing for antibodies in terms of food allergies is the way to go, try also: muscle testing, you may know somebody who does do electro-dermal testing. Either way, try going on an elimination or allergy diet, it may be the answer to your problems.

For repeating gallbladder pain – suspect food allergies in just about 100% of patients. On average I find that they are reacting to 4 or 5 foods, and according to Dr. Jonathon Wright, one of America's most experienced natural medicine doctors, egg is generally always one of the prime food allergens involved. There are over 800,000 cholecystectomies (gallbladder operations) performed in USA per annual, they cost $ 5,000 US to perform. If you do the math here, effective preventive natural medicine treatment could spare 4 billion US dollars with gallbladder conditions alone. I can imagine how many of the operations are performed needlessly in NZ each year, and it is truely amazing how many people I have seen who have their gallbladder out only to find that it did not fix up the problem they originally went to the doctor for in the first place.

Other medical methods of handling gallstones in the gallbladder include attempts to fragment them with sonic shock waves (lithotripsy). Of course there are other times when surgery may become necessary, such as in perforation of the gallbladder (often from gangrene) or where for example non-benign tumors and cancers are present. All this is what I call "crisis medicine," so common in the orthopedic medical procedures used in the hospital system. Does it not make sense to prevent a gallbladder condition in the first place rather than waiting for disaster to strike and then to take action?

How is your back?

See your Chiropractor; you may have mid-thoracic vertebral subluxations. If you have back issues, your fourth thoracic vertebrae may a bit "dodgey", you could be looking at a subluxations which means a slight dislocation (misalignment) or biomechanical malfunctioning of the vertebrae (the bones of the spine). These distortions may irritate nerve roots and the blood vessels which branch off from the spinal cord between each of the vertebrae, and if this is what is happening around the middle of your back it could be affecting your gallbladder.

Gallbladder removed? – take bile salts

I always recommend that a patient who has had their gallbladder removed take bile salts (digestive enzymes) because fats & oils are not properly digested and absorbed by these folk. I always give bile salts when I give them fish-oil, or Vitamin A. Digestive enzymes are essential for those who have had their gallbladder removed, they will feel a lot better for taking them regularly. Their digestion will improve, their bowels will work better and they will feel less full and bloated. For patients who do not improve their diet following surgical removal of the gallbladder the removal leaves the person with an increased risk of colon cancer. Although fast relief of some symptoms can follow this surgery, the relief is often short-lived and the basic causes are still present. If you have lost your gallbladder, the regular use of bile salts at the start of meals can help substantively, including better processing of the fat-soluble essential nutrients such as essential fatty acids and vitamins A, D, E, and K. Probably the best way to tell if you are using enough bile salts is to monitor the color of the stool. If the color is lighter than the normal brown color, or is even a light beige or yellow, this assumes insufficient bile flow; with it's under absorption of essential nutrients, and a need for more bile salts. Such a need for more bile salts will be greater after a meal with greater amounts of fats and oils. Talk to your Naturopath more here, he or she can recommend a product which should work well. I generally find that the digestive enzymes prescribed by your Naturopath to be stronger and much more effective than the retail (health-food shop) products. That is why they are classified as "practiceer-only" products. My website (see resource box) explains more about "practiceer-only" products.

Useful herbal supplements with liver & gallbladder complaints: Swedish bitters, milk thistle, chamomile, peppermint, greater celandine, gymnema, gravel root, dandelion leaf & root, chicory, rhubarb, burdock, cramp bark, ginger root, fennel, and turmeric.

Homeopathic medicine: one of the most specific homeopathic medicines is Chelidonium 30C, and I recommend this remedy for patients who complain of right-sided pains radiating through the back, pains radiating to the right shoulder blade region. It is mainly thought of as a liver remedy, but I find it fantastic for gallbladder disorders as well.

Diet

Eliminate refined sugar and other refined carbohydrates, because it is these foods which in particular increases the cholesterol saturation of bile. Gallbladder problems do not generally happen in under developed countries, they are a phenomenon of the Western developed world. We call these types of health problems the "diseases of modern civilization". You will find that our Western diet is the highly refined one, most people eat foods from the supermarket and our diets are the ones high in the refined sugars, starches and flows. Foods and drinks to strictly avoid one of the worst beverages to drink with gallbladder issues is coffee whether decaffeinated or not, it aggravates symptoms by causing the gallbladder to contract along with sugar. So, sugar and coffee is not a good idea! I also tell patients to avoid chocolate, deep fried foods and saturated animal fats in general. Most tell me that they can not tolerate these foods anyway, so listen to your body and avoid what makes you feel unwell or sick.

Gallbladder foods which have a particular favorable effect include beetroot, Brussels sprouts, fennel, sauerkraut, parsley, artichokes, pears, granny smith apples and the bitter foods such as rocket, endive, chicory, and capers.

Consume a little olive oil daily One way to prevent build-up of gallstones is to eat some oil, particularly extra virgin olive oil, daily; this encourages the gallbladder to contract and to daily "sand dump" its contents into the small intestine, preventing sludge from accumulating and forming gallstones.

Treatments

Warm castor oil packs. All you need is 200ml castor oil (try the chemist or supermarket), and old saucepan, an old cloth, and an old towel. Just warm the old cloth in the pot of oil until it is quite warm, squeeze it out and apply it over the region of the gallbladder – central a little to the right just near where your ribcage finishes. Cover with the old towel, place a hot water bottle on top for added warmth and lie down for fifteen to twenty minutes, then rub the area for 2 minutes with an ice cube in a cloth-repeat 3 times once a day for a week sometimes dislodge gallstones, and is especially a powerful treatment if used in conjunction with the flush and dietary approach. Careful with castor oil, it can stain.

Liver and gallbladder flush

there are many different gallbladder and liver flushes that will work if you have had recurrent gallbladder problems and your diet has been typically Kiwi. You really need to work in with your health-care professional like your naturopath here. I have guided many patients through this procedure the past twenty years and have never experienced a problem, and to be honest have very rarely found someone with a "gallstone too big to pass" as some may fear.

For a gallbladder "attack" try these recipes Here are a couple of tips to try with acute pain, if the pain does not subside, seek medical opinion.

o Drink 1 tbsp of apple cider in a glass of apple juice (warmed). This should treat the pain quickly.
o In a small glass add t tsp turmeric, t tsp cumin, and t tsp Manuka honey – top with boiling water, stir to dissolve and mix together, drink when warm. Take: 3 times a day.
o Citrus tea: have 3 glasses daily of tea made by boiling for 20 minutes in water the rind of a grapefruit.

Recommendations stopping future gallbladder attacks

1. Each morning, drink a "gallbladder attack flush"; 300mls Apple juice (or dilute with water), 3 cloves of raw finely chopped garlic, 1-2 inches of raw finely chopped ginger root, mix well in blender. This drink helps soften sludge and helps prepare your gallbladder to dump rubbish.

2. Liver & gallbladder flush. One simple flush is to drink 3 Tbs of extra-virgin olive oil with the juice of a lemon before retiring and on awakening for at least 3 days, or until no more stones pass. I have other flushes but tend to use them in a consultation with the patient only. This is one procedure in my opinion you are best not to do yourself at home without any guidance, but get the advice from a qualified Naturopath, preferably one with experience in this area.

3. Eat a well balanced diet of 50% raw or partially steamed foods and fresh juices, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts / seeds. This low saturated fat, high fiber diet is a must for healing gallbladder disorders. Flaxseed and olive oil are great additions to your diet for repair and prevention of gallstones. Bitter foods (see below) are a great addition, and will help prevent a build up in future. The two top foods to consume? – Lemon juice and olive oil.

4. Increased your intake of Vitamin C can help with gallbladder ailments. Replenish your vitamin C stores by eating plenty of vitamin C-rich fruits and vegetables on a daily basis. Good sources include capsicums (red / green / yellow), berries, lemons, and broccoli / green leafy veg. I recommend a high grade Vitamin C powder daily for the prevention and maintenance of many conditions in the body.

5. Herbal detoxification products may be helpful in stopping and reversing a gallbladder attack. I suggest using formulas that use organic, whole herbs. There are some excellent products available, just ask your herbalist or naturopath.

3 tips for after the gallstones have passed

o Dr. Dick Versendaal, a Chiropractor from America recommends his "carotid-umbilicus technique". For the best results, it is to used every 15 minutes for 1-3 hours as follows (it's easier if someone else does it on you than try to do it yourself): using the index finger, apply a steady pressure into the belly button for 5 minutes, such as to depress the belly button 1-1 in inches (but avoiding pain). Do this once a day for up to 12 weeks after the stones are passed, it will help your gallbladder a lot.

o Firm rubbing for at least 30 seconds1-2 times a day of the neuro-lymphatic reflexes (these points may feel quite tender if you have gallbladder issues) between ribs 3 and 4, and ribs 4 and 5, just to each side of the breastbone, and between ribs 5 and 6 just under the nipple of the right breast can be quite helpful.

o Also softly holding (not pressing or rubbing) for at least one minute the neurovascular reflexes at the anterior fontanel (front of head the baby's soft spot near crown of head- locate at tip of middle finger when the wrist crease of either hand is placed on the eye brows and the middle finger extended onto the midline of the skull) and at the hairline on the forehead directly above the outer corner of each eye. Look for the "tender spots", you will find them.



Source by Eric Bakker ND

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What Are the Differences Between Men's and Women's Glasses?


The right eyeglasses can really accentuate everything from your eye color to your face shape. Take the time to really consider the look of your eyeglass frames so that you can choose the right item for you. It's important to note that men's and women's eyeglasses are quite different. Although there are many unisex options available today, there are some minor differences between men's and women's eyeglasses. The following are just some of the differences to consider.

One of the biggest differences between men's and women's eyeglasses is the size of the frames. Men tend to have larger bone structure and heads. Additionally, their eyes are usually father apart. Thus, men's glasses tend to have a longer bridge and sometimes even longer temples to accommodate for this change. You may still be able to find unisex frames that accommodate for this size difference. Still, chances are that if you are looking at men's eyeglasses, they are much wider than women-focused frames. Remember that many places will resize frames to fit your face. Keep this in mind when looking through the eyeglass selection.

The shape of the frames is another key difference between men's and women's eyeglasses. As mentioned above, men tend to have larger faces. Thus, the frames on men's options may be much larger than those of women's options. Men tend to go for square or rectangle type eyeglasses whereas women usually invest in rounder options. Still, the current trends for both men and women are for angular type eyeglasses.

Color is another difference between men's and women's eyeglasses. Often, men go for glasses in dark or neutral colors: brown, black, gray, steel, and dark blue are all common colors for men's eyeglasses. Women have more flexibility when it comes to their frames. They can go from bright red or checker patterned frames to dark brown or black. Often, such colorful eyeglasses will be built with women in mind. Thus, if a male did want to invest in colorful frames, he may find that they are too small.

There are not many differences between men's and women's eyeglasses. Really, the differences are based on the size, shape, and color of the frames. More and more eyeglasses today are being made to fit both genders. Thus, more and more options are appearing. The only way to find glasses that are right for you is to take the time to shop around and to try them on. You never know which items will look best with your face shape. Once you slip on the right pair of eyeglasses, you will know: It's like slipping on a glove. Take the time to try as many pairs as possible until you find the eyeglasses that are best for you.



Source by Sara Roberts

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Carbon Paper Vs Carbonless Paper


Both carbon and carbonless paper can be used to make copies of documents without any electronic devices. There are differences in each kind, both in how they are made and their uses. Overall, 3-part carbonless paper is a more popular option than carbon paper alternatives, and here is why.

Carbon paper is the original version of electronic-free document copying. It is covered on one side with a dark, ink-like substance that usually contains carbon. It makes copies with the creation on the first document.

A sheet is put in between the original and blank sheet the user wanted the copy to appear on. They write or type onto the original and the pressure from the application puts ink onto the blank sheet. This creates a carbon copy.

Carbon paper was first used around the 19th century with a patent for something called a stylographic writer. A few years later, another inventor created a typewriting machine using carbon paper as part of its function. This means carbon paper was discovered and growing around the same time.

Carbonless paper, also known as NCR paper, is a better and more popular alternative to carbon paper. It is stain free and biodegradable and easier to transfer. It also relations on pressure from a writing utensil in order to create the chemical reaction that leaves a copy on pages below the top copy.

To make two copies of a document, papers would have a white top sheet and one colored second sheet below. This is called a two-part or duplicate. To make three copies, there is a white top sheet and two colored sheets directly below. This is called a three-part or triplicate. Four copies would have been called a four-part or quadruplicate.

Sometimes, users requires stacks of ten or more copies. This is easy to do with NCR paper. Carbonless copy paper is supplied to the end user collated in pads or books. They are bound into sets using glue or staple. Loose sets or continuous stationary is widely used in printers. Businesses can also especially order as many stacks of carbonless copy paper as needed.

For a 3 part carbonless paper, there are three sheets. The first is the CB sheet that is the original to be copies. The bottom part of the sheet is covered in a layer of microcapsules that contain color formers.

The CFB sheet is second. The top side is coated with a receptive layer which reacts chemically with the color former on the top CB sheet. On the bottom of the sheet, a transfer layer with microcapsules transfers the copy to the last sheet.

The third sheet, or CF sheet, is on the bottom of the set. The top side is the receptive layer which reacts with the microcapsules color former on the sheet above it. The receptive layer is most often manufactured using activated clays.

Carbon and carbonless paper is mostly used to make copies of receipts. It serves as a backup operation in case computer systems fail. These paper options are also used to transfer invoices, service tickets, sales order, and purchase orders. Carbon and carbonless paper is used by modern artists as a surface for beginning a painting.

Carbon paper has some unique uses. Police offers use carbon paper for evidence vouchers. Prison inmates are required to use carbon paper when writing letters or other notes so the prison has a copy. Business forms utilize carbon paper for purchase orders and invoices. Banks and small firms are the largest buyers of carbon paper.

Carbon paper is also commonly used among tattoo artists. The artists can practice draw designs and show it to the customer as they work on it, making changes as needed. The paper is moistened and pressed to the skin to leave a carbon outline. Customers can also bring in a design or message that want tattooed and carbon paper transfers it.

Carbonless paper can be used for these uses and more. Quotes, legal forms, employment applications, insurance forms, proposals, and delivery forms all use carbonless paper. NCR paper can also be used for requisition forms, tracking manifests, and contracts.



Source by R Potts

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How to Put an Army IRR Packet Together


Packet requirements, what you need to include in your IRR packet:

1. IRR packet checklist, based on Figure B-59 of USAR Pamphlet 600-5.

2. DA Form 4561, Request for Reserve Component Assignment or Attachment. Completely filled and signed by the Soldier and the Commander.

3. Your statement / justification letter and backing documentation. This is based on the reasons listed in AR 140-10.

4. Chain of Command Recommendation.

5. Cogent Personal Reason. If the specific reason is not listed in AR 140-10, it requires an exception to policy by your OFTS.

6. Counselling Statement (DA Form 4856). This is from the commander to the Soldier and is face to face. Are you in receipt of a bonus? This counsel statement must warn you about bonus termination or recoupment.

7. Counselling Statement (DA Form 4856). From the Soldier's serving career counselor to the Soldier; it's also face to face.

Valid reasons for transferring from the Troop Program Unit (TPU) to the Individual Ready Reserves (IRR):

As a TPU Soldier, you can forward an IRR transfer packet up the chain of command. There's no guarantee for that packet's approval, or for your transfer to the IRR.

If you want to improve your TPU to IRR transfer opportunities, refer to the valid reasons listed in AR 140 -10, Chapter 4, Paragraph 9. If you have sufficient documents, and facts, to support one or more of these reasons, include them in your IRR packet. This'll help you make your case for transferring to the IRR.

Employment Conflict:

Let's say that your employer all of a sudden can not release you from the work schedule so that you can drill … as your absence would cause an adverse impact on your employer's operation. Before, this was not an issue. Your employer released you for a weekend, and was able to continue his operation. When they could not release you, you were able to reschedule.

Now? Your employer needs you, on the days you need to drill, in order for the company to continue on with its mission. Conditions had changed since you started working with this employer.

Or, you're in a company that structures and eliminates your job. They move you to another part of the company. In this new job, you're on call to go to different parts of the country, and your schedule is random. You're not able to do rescheduled training. Your employer can not spare you for any reserve drill without negatively impacting company operations.

These are just two examples, of which there are many, on how your employment could evolve into something that makes it hard for you to meet TPU requirements.

In your Soldier's Statement of Justification letter, provide an objective picture of how your employment schedule makes it impractical for you to continue with the TPU. Include statements from your employer to back this justification.

Change of address:

You accept a new job within your company. It'll pay you more, it's something that you love doing, and it represents a move up in your civil career. The catch? You have to go somewhere that's two days away from the nearest Army Reserve center. Your employer is not able to spare you enough time to get to, and return from, the nearest Army Reserve unit.

In this scenario, you're a TPU Soldier that can not drill with any Army Reserve unit.

Or, you get a promotion that sends you overseas. Your job location is a long flight away from the nearest Army Reserve Center.

For something like this, you'd be able to submit a packet to transfer to the IRR. In your statement of soldier justification, include employment orders, employment promotion documents, new job description, an objective picture that details your new job location, your new residence, etc.

Cogent personal reasons:

This is sort of a "catch all" to cover other reasons not specifically covered in AR 140-10.

What you think is a very good reason to transfer may not be what the Army thinks it is. You also have to see this from your unit's perspective.

You're asking them to release you, when they need you at the unit during drills and summer training. They do not have a guarantee that they'll get a replacement Soldier. You have to convince them to "sign off" on your IRR packet.

Let's say that you're "burned out" from doing drills. You just want to "sit around" in the IRR until the "burnt out" phase ends. In your unit's eyes, this is a subjective reason. They could work with you to where you would not need to submit an IRR transfer packet.

In this example, your soldier justification letter needs to provide an accurate, objective, picture of how your Army reserve duties contribute to you being burned out. You'll need letters from your medical professionals to help bolster your justifications.

Whatever the personal reason that you choose, make sure that you could provide an objective picture. Make sure that you could provide factual information from subject matter experts involved with your situation.

You also want to prove that there's no other way to "solve" your current issue other than to transfer to the IRR. Before you do this, you have to exhaust the means to resolve this with resources that your unit could reference you to.

You completed the TPU portion of your contract, now you're ready to transfer to the IRR:

As of this writing, everyone that joins the military, for the first time, signed an eight year contract. When a first time enlister signs a 6 year Army Reserve contract, they're not just signing up for 6 years. When those 6 years are over, that Soldier has an additional 2 years of commitment. They can request transfer to the IRR after their TPU commitment.

This concept applies even if the TPU part of the contract was 3, 4, or 5 years.

Once the TPU portion of the contract is over, they can request transfer to the IRR. They have to continue drilling with the unit until they receive their IRR orders.

Surviving son or daughter:

You're in the reserves, and pursuing your civil career. Two years later, your last remaining sibling passes on. You're now your parents' only surviving child. This is an unfortunate event, but one that gives you an opportunity to transfer from the TPU to the IRR.

When you write your Soldier justification letter, include documentation proving that you're now the last / sole surviving child for your parents.

Dependency or hardship makes it impractical to participate in TPU:

Let's say your family situation changes, and you have to provide extra care and support to one of your family members. This family member is someone on your dependents list. You do not have an alternative care plan … nobody else could afford to give up a lot of their time, and sacrifice their employment, to help you out.

This dependent family member needs your presence. Without you, this family member's welfare is negatively impacted.

Two examples of this category is an "assisted living" situation and a "direct support provider" situation. In these scenarios, a family member is unable to care for him or herself. The family member requires a soldier's attention, supervision, and direct support to do basic functions.

Statements from doctors, social workers, case managers, and other related people should be included in this packet. Their statement should focus on the nature of the dependency hardship, and on the need for you to be consistently available.

Pregnancy:

If you're pregnant, you may be able to transfer to the IRR. You have to be MOS qualified, and you can not be within 3 months of your ETS.

Non selection for retention:

This impacts TPU Soldiers that have received their "official notification of eligibility to retire with pay at 60" letter. This is the "20 year letter." By regulation, these Soldiers are subjected to a Qualitative Retention Board.

Prior to this board's welcoming, the affected Soldier receives a "pre board" packet. The Soldier is given a couple of options. If the board removes the Soldier from the TPU, which control group would the Soldier like to transfer to?

The Soldier could elect to be transferred to the retired reserves, or to the IRR. Should the qualitative review board decide to remove the Soldier from the TPU, orders will be generated transferring the Soldier to the control group that the Soldier selected.

This is also applicable to TPU Soldiers subject to the actions of other types of retention boards. In this situation, a Soldier may have the option to transfer to the IRR.

Enrollment into a non-scholarship ROTC:

A "non-scholarship" ROTC program is one that offers the student a chance to participate in an ROTC program without financial benefits. These students do not get a monthly stipend. These students pay for their own tuition, fees, and other expenses.

Soldiers that get accepted into this type of ROTC program can submit an IRR packet.

Merchant Marine Academy:

If you get accepted into the Merchant Marine Academy, you can submit an IRR transfer packet.

Army Regulation 140-10:

For details on each of these categories, and how to apply under them, read Army regulation 140 -10, Assignments, Attachments, Details, and Transfers.

Counseling statements from the commanding officer and servicing career counselor:

Did you get a bonus for enlisting into your current TPU contract? If your IRR transfer gets approved, you could lose the reminder of your bonus. Depending on your bonus stipulation, you could end up having to pay back the part of your bonus that you received.

If you're receiving a bonus, you need to be informed of this fact when you submit your IRR packet.

This counseling statement should also inform you of your IRR responsibilities. The commanding officer will include any information that's important to you. This includes the fact that you must continue to drill with the unit until you receive transfer orders to the IRR.

The career counselor will inform you of opportunities that are available to you in the IRR, including opportunities to reclassify and transfer back to the TPU when personal conditions favor such a move.

IRR transfer packet tips:

1. Are you on your initial contract, with IRR time following your TPU time? By regulation, you're not supposed to submit your IRR packet until your TPU obligation is complete. You can submit your IRR transfer package the day after your "TPU ETS" date.

2. After you submit your IRR packet, you have to drill with your unit until you receive orders transferring you to the IRR.

Do not simply go by what somebody at your unit says. Some Soldiers have stopped drilling after they "completed" their "TPU years," because they thought they were automatically in the IRR. This was not true, they had to report back to drill.

3. Follow up on your packet. If HRC does not get your packet, they may extend your TPU status to the end of your military service obligation. In this case, you'll have to drill until your 8 years is up.

4. If you have unresolved medical issues, you have to have these issues resolved before you can transfer to the IRR.

5. IRR Soldiers still have obligations and point requirements to make. However, you could consider the active standby reserves instead of the IRR if you want to "get away" from the TPU temporarily.

In the IRR, you have to get at least 50 points a retirement year.

In the active standby reserves, there's no requirement for you to get at least 50 points. You maintain your military affiliation, but you're generally not required to maintain a good year. The active standby reserves is what most people assume the IRR is.

Additional References:

1. AR 140-10; provides details on the above categories as justification for IRR transfer.

2. AR G1 Policy Letters.

3. USAR Pamphlet 600-5.



Source by Travis Hill

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The Advantages and Disadvantages of a Long Penis


It has been perceived in the history of mankind that being the proud owner of a long penis put any man in a privileged position. This prized possession has single-handedly built a sense of grandeur amongst men in our society. One could almost say this one attribute overshadows several social status indicators such as power, money, and materials which normally give men leverage over another. But, contrary to popular belief, there are advantages and disadvantage to having a long penis.

The Appeal Factor

Advantage: From a sexual perspective, there are many of you who favor the potential enjoyment of a long penis. There are many that will only engage in sexual intercourse with those that possess this desirable commodity. The shear look of a long penis is enough to make otherwise aggressive people submit to its every demand.

Disadvantage: There are also those of you who feel threatened by the above average length of these male sexual organs. When you look at one or even think about one all you may imagine is an excruciatingly painful sexual experience. For anyone who knows the average sizes of the rectum or the vagina, they know that anything beyond the average penis length of around 6 in. is excessive and unnecessary for modest sexual enjoyment.

The Girth Factor

Advantage: There are many of you who are able to be fully satisfied sexually with a longer than average penis. You all completely disband the potential enjoyment that would come from a penis with above average girth as opposed to length. But, in some instances, there are those men out there that have the best of both worlds with girth and length. This makes everyone who already craves the extended length very happy.

Disadvantage: Some of you just simply prefer girth alone. It has been found that the most pleasurable erogenous zones within the rectum and/or vagina are between 2.5 in – 4 in from the entrance of either. So, it would appear more enjoyable for a man to have a wide penis of average length than a long penis that will potentially lack the necessary girth.

The Performance Factor

Advantage: There are places inside the rectum and vagina that just simply can’t be reach with an average sized penis. You will sometimes hear people say things like “I want to feel his penis in my stomach” which alludes to the penis going very deep inside of them. Several people find euphoric pleasure through this sexual privilege.

Disadvantage: There are several fluent motions during sex that a man with a longer penis will be unable to perform. It is very dangerous and unhealthy for any man to attempt positions where the penis may be bent to extreme angles. This is especially true with a man with more length. Some like to feel the heat from the body of their partner during sex to heighten the experience. This is a luxury that a man with a longer penis may not be able to provide.

The Penetration Factor

Advantage: The recipients of these colossal penises have their rectum or vagina engorged with penis for ultimate pleasure. Whatever deep itch the recipient needs scratched by this penis, will get their wish. For those that indulge in the form of sexual gratification, this is probably the most beneficial aspect of dealing with a man with this sized male organ.

Disadvantage: The man with the long penis will very seldom get his entire penis satisfied during sexual intercourse. In most cases, the lower portion this organ will have to miss out on the action unless his partner decides to pleasure that portion in other ways. This is one of the huge benefits of having an average sized penis.

Depending on what a person wants from his or her sexual experiences, this penile variance can have either an advantage or a disadvantage. You decide.



Source by Khary Campbell

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