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Top 3 Tips For A Bigger Flaccid (Hanging) Penis Size (And The Best Method To Bring It All Together)


I’m sure you would love to have a huge penis erection that is long, thick, rock-hard, attractive, and muscular-looking. Am I right? Well, you most certainly are not alone with this much sought after goal most men have. That being said, I’m pretty sure that if you want to have a huge erection, you also want to have a huge flaccid (hanging) penis size as well. Am I right again?

Well my friend, the good news is that you can not only increase how big your flaccid hanging size is, you can also increase your erection size (and gain all of those benefits I mentioned above), and you can even improve your performance with intercourse (such as curing premature ejaculation, having more intense orgasms, and more). The bad news is that most of the methods you are familiar with (extenders, pumps, hanging weights, surgery, and pills) are NOT going to get you to the promised land!

In the words to follow I’m going to share with you the top 3 tips on how you can increase your flaccid hanging size (which will also increase your erected size as well), and also which method actually does work to bring all of this together naturally easily, SAFELY, permanently, and without spending obscene amounts of money!

What Increases Your Flaccid Size…

1. Your ligament needs to be stretched…

The penis has a ligament that is responsible for the length of your penis. This ligament is called the suspensory ligament. It extends a few inches below your pelvic bone and out to your penis. A natural method will put out those few inches that is below your pelvic bone and thus increasing the length of your flaccid and erected size.

2. You have to have an increase of blood circulation…

One of the most important aspects of getting a bigger, stronger, and harder erection, and also a bigger hanging size is that you must have more blood flowing into your penile shaft.

Pumps and pills claim to do this very well. Well, in my own experience, and in light of many reviews from other men, pumps will only work on a temporary basis (and they cause side-effects), and pills (the natural and safe kind) actually do work for increasing blood flow. However, pills can not increase your penis size… they only help with speeding up blood flow, and that alone does not make you bigger. JUST having more blood flow will help with erectile dysfunction.

3. Chamber expansion…

You have 3 penile chambers… and all of them must be stimulated and NATURALLY expanded in order for you to get a bigger flaccid and erected penis size… and there is only ONE method that will do this extremely important step.

The Method That Brings It All Together…

The best and most effective method to naturally stretch your suspensory ligament, increase blood flow, and expand your penile chambers are natural penis exercises.

Penis exercises are a group of exercise routines that you do with nothing but your hands and some lubrication. You can learn how to do these routines by downloading a reputable penis exercise program (which are very affordable, very informative, very fun, and very discreet).

These exercises are divided up into 3 levels (beginner, intermediate, and advanced). If you follow a program exactly, you can see pretty significant changes within the first 3 weeks (as it was for me).

Before I started a penis exercise program I was about 5 inches fully erected and my flaccid size was TERRIBLE! Basically, my flaccid size looked as if I barely had a penis (lol)!

Once I started doing these penis exercises, the first 2 things I noticed was that my flaccid size was increasing and I was lasting longer during sex. In about 8 weeks, I ended up with a much bigger hanging size, I gained 2 extra inches on my erected size, I’m more thicker, and harder, and my performance in the bedroom has greatly improved.

Bottom line, if you want to improve your flaccid and erected size, and if you want to knock your significant others stockings off, just as long as you stay natural and stay consistent, you too can experience similar results as I and many other man have by going with a natural method.



Source by Anthony Sciuto

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Handwriting Analysis – What Writing Above the Line Means


Before I start discussing what writing above the line means, I’d like to remind you that whatever it means is just one clue to that person whose handwriting you’re looking at. It’s not the complete profile of that person. Just like in life, every characteristic is influenced by every other characteristic in handwriting. So, it’s wrong to draw conclusions about a person based on this single characteristics.

Now, let’s get started.

Line spacing in handwriting analysis is essential in finding out the writer’s sense of organization, ambition, and time balance. In simple terms, this tells us how a person:

  • Behaves at work.
  • Manages assigned tasks.
  • Deals with decision making.
  • Handles pressure.

Now, let me give you some examples to see how important line spacing is in handwriting analysis. You’ll get a much better idea of how handwriting analysis establishes the writer’s complete profile based on this line spacing attribute.

Writing Way Above The Line
Writer doesn’t want to get involved in ongoing processes. Strong feelings of isolation are present. And there might also be a possible separation from reality.

Writing Right Above The Line
Writer has feelings of isolation. There might be lack of spontaneity, but good manners and organizational skills prevail.

Writing On The Line
Writer is systematic, and lives by plans. Avoid adventures, or straying away from plans. And therefore, is highly consistent.

Overlapping Writing
Writer has too much on her plate at the moment. Lines tangling with each other shows preoccupation and over-involvement with activities.

And of course, there are more characteristics in line spacing than just these 4 characteristics.



Source by Ankitaa Gohain Dalmia

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Excess Vaginal Wetness – What are Your Options


Vaginal Wetness during Sex: YOU MAY BE WETTER THAN NECESSARY!

Most of us assume that sex is best when wet, but are you feeling as much as you could be from intercourse? Just like a car engine, there is an upper and lower range that is required for maximum performance.

Too much natural lubrication (wetness) during sex reduces pleasure for both partners. Females lose greater stimulation along the vaginal walls. Men lose out on the corresponding ‘tight’ sensation that they love. We all have an optimum level of friction that is required to enable heightened pleasure for both partners, thus leading to easier climax. This level of stimulation can most easily be obtained by experimenting with your wetness level. Sex could be much more satisfying than what you think it already is.

A woman’s wetness level increases naturally as arousal increases. But for some ladies, even the slightest turn-on is enough to produce an extravagant amount of lubrication. If excess wetness is a problem for you, OR if you wish to simply experiment with different levels of wetness, seeking the most pleasurable ‘tight’ sensation for your man, what can you do?

First, realize that there is more involved in sex than just the intercourse part of it. More women achieve orgasms by clitoral stimulation than by intercourse. However, intercourse is an intimate act & should be satisfying when possible. If it is not enjoyable, then a couple will more than likely become romantically distant. This is the beginning of marriage deterioration.

Secondly, you should see your doctor to be sure there is no infection, abnormalities, or other problem causing your excess wetness, especially if it is something new. Don’t take chances!

Medical Options:

The most radical solution to excess wetness is surgery. This should be your last resort, & is rarely necessary. Other medical procedures include freezing or lasering the cervix to reduce secretions, electrical stimulation, & treatment with magnetic fields. These treatments can variously be painful, costly, & time consuming. There is no guarantee of success or that the problem will not return.

Non-Medical Options:

There are numerous options, but few realistic ones. Here are some common things couples try (including some “old wives tales”) & comments about their effectiveness.

1) Anything that dries up the mouth. In general, if it dries the mouth, then it will also affect the vagina somewhat. Examples would be decongestants, antihistamines, cold formulas, certain antidepressants, alcohol, cigarettes, & marijuana. While these may work to some degree, wetness & corresponding tightness levels are not controllable, not to mention that a dry mouth is not as tasty during kissing & is more conductive to bad breath due to lack of saliva.

2) Try an Alum Douche. We’ve heard of this, but don’t know any doctor recommending it. Alum acts to contract walls of vagina, but can be irritating & cause yeast infections. There’s no way to judge how long it will last nor a way to control the extent of tightening

3) Use a ribbed condom or penis sleeve. Excess wetness remains a problem with or without a condom. Penis sleeves help the man feel more, but tends to numb the woman’s vagina after a few minutes, making her uncomfortable.

4) Douche with plain water. This has some impact by reducing the amount of natural lubrication, but the effect tends to vanish as the woman’s arousal increases, resulting in secretion of even more lubrication.

5) Insert a sponge or cloth. One of the more embarrassing techniques as it must be done intermittently. Couples find this a big turn off. The technique though, is to wrap a thin sheet/towel around a couple of fingers. Insert the fingers to soak up vaginal wetness. Proceed with intercourse. Repeat as necessary. While this method does work, re-entry of vagina is difficult & painful because this method absorbs ALL the lubrication. Within a few minutes however, as arousal increases again, there will once again be too much wetness. With this method, there is no way of controlling the desired level of wetness & tightness.

6) Use of a fan blowing on the genital area. Not a practical solution, as it primarily results in making the couple cold, while having little impact on internal vaginal secretions.

7) Use of birth control pills. An old wives tale without any validity.

8) Repositioning her body. Certain positions, such as closing of the legs, act to tighten the vagina, but unless the man has a longer than average penis, he will find it far less satisfying due to shallower penetration.

9) Insert an ice cube into the vagina to cause muscle contraction. Another old wives tale, not to mention the obvious discomfort.

10) Vaginal Cones. Very similar in concept to kegal exercises. The idea here is to exercise the vaginal muscles by holding an object inside the vagina by flexing the interior muscles. Increasingly heavier weights can be placed inside. The theory is sound, but females have a difficult time staying on this type of program long enough to be of benefit, not to mention that like any muscle, if it is not continually worked, it will lose its strength. The other disadvantage is that to be of benefit during intercourse, the female must consciously flex her interior muscles, thus taking away from her ability to relax & enjoy the act of intercourse itself.

11) Creams. There are a couple of these on the internet now being marketed under many different names. If you already suffer from excess wetness, adding a cream to the existing problem is not going to help. Manufacturers say the creams have a tightening effect on the vagina within 15-30 minutes, but evidence shows that any NOTICEABLE tightening effects is minimal to none. Application of the cream to the interior walls of the vagina is difficult, embarrassing & must be properly timed to correspond with intercourse. Some of the creams contain benzocaine, alum or Vaseline, none of which are recommended for being inserted into the vagina. To check out more on these creams, look on the internet under ‘vaginal tightening.’

12) AbsorbShun natural powder. Is an ‘all-natural’ powder that either the man or woman can apply to the man’s penis. It is simple & quick to use, & has a noticeable moisture absorbing effect within 1-2 minutes. The more powder used, the more absorption, thus allowing the couple to find (and control) their most preferred moisture & tightness level. For more information on this product, go to http://www.absorbshun.com

Whatever option you choose, you should look for a solution that is satisfactory for both partners. Finding the right level of lubrication can lead to greater sexual pleasure, more frequent sex, & a closer relationship between partners.



Source by Cynthia Koss

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A Short Article on Technology


The world has undergone enormous changes over the past decade. We now live in a world where communication is paramount. It seems that everyone and everything is connected in some way.

For school students this has made things much more efficient. Research papers that used to involve hours of laborious effort, can now be researched and documented without ever touching a card catalog or a periodical index. Worlds of information are now available at the click of a mouse.

Questions that people pondered without any answer previously can now simply be typed into any convenient search engine and answered almost immediately. There are countless sites filled with informative short articles all over the Internet. Videos and music can now be seen on demand and news from across the world can be delivered in an instant.

There are some people who worry that the technological revolution and evolution we are experiencing today is moving too fast. There seems to be a loss of privacy in some respects and the specter of a Big Brother society looms larger than it has since 1984. Whether their fears are well founded or not will remain to be seen, but it is unlikely that people will ever willingly give up the almost instant connections to our wired world.

Flying in the face of these fears are individuals who share their worlds through their blogs. What used to be shared with only close friends is now put online for millions of people to see if they should happen upon the blogger’s website. Individuals are learning to take advantage of this by using their well placed blogs to sell products and services. The internet has allowed individuals an opportunity to step on to the same playing field as the big boys of business. With the right information and the ability to get it seen, anyone can now reach the masses and share their thoughts, feelings and even sales pitches.

Businesses as well as individuals have come to rely on the Internet as a source of advertising and actual sales. Entire business models have been constructed and thriving based solely on using Internet websites. It is rare today to find a traditional brick and mortar establishment that does not have some type of online presence. Any business that does not adapt and grow to keep up with the newest technology seriously risks being left behind in the wake of their competitors who choose to ride technology’s leading edge.

Time will tell where this all will lead. We should make the most of the positive possibilities technology promises, but we should also keep a careful watch on where we are going.



Source by Sandy Lakstrom

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A Review of The Family Crucible


The Family Crucible, by Napier and Whitaker (1978), reads like a novel while at the same time laying down some of the fundamental concepts of family systems therapy. It is a case study of one family’s experience in family therapy. While the therapy shifts from daughter to son and then to parent interaction to daughters and son, it is finally the couple’s marriage that must be treated if issues are to be resolved. Even the grandparents are brought into therapy to get at the family of origin issues.

The book opens with a quote from James Agee and Walker Evans: “The family must take care of itself; it has no mother or father; there is no shelter, nor resource, nor any love, interest, sustaining strength or comfort, so near, nor can anything happy or sorrowful that comes to anyone in this family possibly mean to those outside it what it means to those within it; but it is, as I have told, inconceivably lonely, drawn upon itself as tramps are drawn round a fire in the cruelest weather; and thus and in such loneliness it exists among other families, each of which is no less lonely, nor any less without help or comfort, and is likewise drawn in upon itself.”

Through the telling of the Brice family’s story, Napier and Whitaker illustrate underlying dynamics such as structural imbalances in the system and how child focus is a typical method used by unhappy couples to avoid dealing with their own marital and family of origin issues. Fusion, triangles, individual and family life cycle stages, family-of-origin themes, polarization, reciprocity, blaming, and the hierarchy and characteristics of living systems are among the concepts that are explained and illustrated through this family’s therapy experience. David and Carolyn, an unhappily married couple, are the parents of Claudia (the IP), Laura, and Don. The book is well written and hard to put down once you start reading it.

Whitaker has been criticized in the field, because many people believe that he does not really have a theory. It is believed that it is only his charismatic personality that drives his treatment. I disagree. I believe that one has only to read his chapter in The Handbook of Family Therapy (1981) and see these concepts illustrated in The Family Crucible to realize the depth and breadth of his theory.

In the service of reviewing the book, it is useful to consider Whitaker’s background and key theoretical concepts. He began as an OB/GYN and had no formal psychiatric training. He became involved in treating schizophrenics after World War II. Whitaker was interested in understanding disturbed relationships in a familial context and in determining whether serious symptoms such as those in psychotics might be reinforced by dysfunctional family patterns and beliefs.

From 1946 to 1955, Whitaker (1981) became involved in treating schizophrenia with a type of aggressive play therapy. In fact, Whitaker’s most formative training was in a child guidance clinic where he learned play therapy (Whitaker, 1981). Whitaker used some outrageous methods, including learning to talk “crazy,” arm wrestling, use of a baby bottle, and rocking, all of which were rooted in his training experience.

At the same time that he developed these techniques, he developed a kind of pyknolepsy, wherein he would fall asleep in the middle of a session. He would dream about his relationship with the patient being treated, and then make his associations to the dream a part of the therapy session (Whitaker, 1981). In justifying his unique techniques, Whitaker emphasized that “Each technique is a process whereby the therapist is developing himself and using the patient as an intermediary, that is the therapist is interacting in a primary process model” (p. 188).

In 1946, Whitaker (1981) moved to Emory, where he became chair of the Department of Psychiatry. It was here that he developed dual co-therapy with Dr. Thomas Malone. In 1964, Whitaker worked with David Keith to develop a postgraduate specialty in MFT at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine. The development of symbolic-experiential methodology required students to “. . . take everything said by the patient as symbolically important as well as realistically factual” (Whitaker, 1981, p. 189).

Whitaker (1981) defined health as “. . . a process of perpetual becoming” (p. 190). He emphasized that what is most important in a healthy family is “. . . the sense of an integrated whole. . . The healthy family is not a fragmented group nor a congealed group. . . The healthy family will utilize constructive input and handle negative feedback with power and comfort. The group is also therapist to the individuals” (p. 190). Whitaker also defines the healthy family as “. . . a three to four generational whole that is longitudinally integrated. . . maintaining a separation of the generations. Mother and father are not children and the children are not parents” (p. 190). Whitaker also looked at the degree of volitional access parents and children have to outside support and interests. The families of origin in healthy families are on friendly terms.

Importantly, Whitaker looked to spontaneity as a marker of healthy communication in families. The healthy family allows each member to admit to problems and to identify competencies. Thus, it is emphasized that healthy families allow great freedom for the individual to be himself. Whitaker (1981) states that “. . . normal families do no reify stress” (p. 190).

Whitaker (1981) emphasized that a basic characteristic of all healthy families is the availability of an “as if” structure, which permits different family members to take on different roles at different times. Roles result from interaction instead of being rigidly defined. They are defined by various conditions, including the past, present, future, culture, and demands of the family at a given time. On the other hand, Whitaker defined the dysfunctional family as “. . . characterized by a very limited sense of the whole” (p. 194). Lack of flexibility at times of change, covert communication, intolerance of conflict, lack of spontaneity, lack of empathy, blaming and scapegoating, a lack of playfulness, and little sense of humor are all markers of unhealthy families from Whitaker’s perspective.

Whitaker placed heavy emphasis on the technique of co-therapy. In The Family Crucible, for example, the reader constantly witnesses Whitaker and Napier turn up the power. Whitaker and Napier’s process techniques illustrated in the book are designed to disorganize rigid patterns of behavior directly in session. The exposure of covert behaviors is considered to be the family’s misguided effort to stay in tact by submerging real feelings. There is a decisive here-and-now quality to symbolic-experiential interventions used in The Family Crucible, with a focus upon creating and then addressing en vivo emotional dynamics in therapy session.

Napier and Whitaker insisted that the entire Brice family be present in therapy. Indeed, Whitaker’s symbolic-experiential treatment model considered it crucial to begin the treatment process with the entire family (Napier and Whitaker, 1978). Whitaker (1981) has emphasized that “Our demand to have the whole family in is the beginning of our ‘battle for structure.’ It begins with the first phone call” (p. 204). He asserts that it is “. . . difficult to do process-focused family therapy without the children” and the “. . . experiential quality of family therapy requires the children’s presence” (p. 205). In the book, Napier and Whitaker (1978) frequently attempt change through playing and teasing, especially with Laura, Don, and Claudia. Members from David and Carolyn’s families of origin are invited to session. Whitaker (1981) states that in arranging for four generations to come to interviews as consultants that he is “. . . helping to evolve a large system anxiety” (p. 204). Experience is privileged over cognitive engagement throughout the treatment with the Brice family, as it is conceptualized that experience trumps cognitive growth in this theory.

Napier and Whitaker (1978) describe their co-therapy as symbolic of a professional marriage. Early treatment of the Brice family involved the co-therapists making decisions. Symbolically, they viewed the family as a baby taking its first steps. As such, the family required structure, so it follows that the therapists made unilateral decisions. Once Napier and Whitaker had won the battle for control, the therapists, like parents raising children, soften considerably. In the middle phase of the Brice family’s treatment, decisions about treatment were made more collaboratively. Again, the model for this process is increasing differentiation of the family. As therapy proceeded, the therapists took increasingly smaller roles, watching like proud parents as the Brice family became more integrated into changing themselves independent of the therapists. Whitaker (1981) clarifies that the therapy process “. . . begins with infancy and goes to late adolescence, where the initiative is with the kids, who then bear responsibility for their own living” (p. 107).

Throughout the book, it is implicitly and explicitly emphasized that the self-development of the therapists is the most important variable in the success of therapy. Napier and Whitaker (1978) acted as coaches or surrogate grandparents to the Brice family as therapy progressed. They were active and considered themselves to be the forces for change. Rather than a blank screen, they acted as allies of the family system. Especially in the beginning, Napier and Whitaker were directive. They used silence, confrontation and other anxiety-building techniques to unbalance the system. They acted as catalysts, who picked up on the unspoken and discovered the undercurrents represented by the family’s symbolic communication patterns. The co-therapists privileged their subjective impressions.

More than anything else, Napier and Whitaker (1978) had the courage to be themselves. They knew how to meet the absurdities of life and how to bring out people’s primary impulses. They believed strongly in the healing power of the human being, and, even more, of the family. They insisted that the family be in contact with its own craziness, play, and honor the spontaneous through their own modeling and directing.

The reader could observe how this symbolic-experiential therapy team moved through several stages. In the early part of treatment, the co-therapists battle for structure and they are all-powerful. In the mid-phase, the parental team functioned as stress activators, growth expanders, and creativity stimulators. Late in treatment, the co-therapists sat back and watched, respecting the independent functioning of the family. Whitaker (1981) holds that the “The sequence of joining and distancing is important. It is a lot like being with children. A father can get furious with his kids one minute, then be loving the next. We take the same stance with families” (p. 205). Thus, the role of the co-therapists was dynamic over the course of treatment with the Brice family.

Whether as a training therapist or a lay reader, it is inspirational to study the therapy offered by Napier and Whitaker (1978) in The Family Crucible. Self-disclosure, creative play, teaching stories, spontaneous interpersonal messages, the use of metaphor, and the sharing of parts of the therapists’ lives that reflect a working through in their own living are used generously. Process techniques intended to activate confusion around Claudia, the identified patient, unbalance the system, and open up authentic dialogue between marital partners and between the generations of extended families are used. It is emphasized, however, that it is not technique, but personal involvement that enabled Whitaker and Napier (1978) to do their best. It is continually illustrated how symbolic (emotional) experiences are fundamentally formative in the treatment of families, illustrated poignantly with the Brice family. Therefore, such experience should be created in session. To expose the covert world beneath the surface world is the most curative factor for the Brice family, is it is for all families. By getting inside the Brice family’s unique language and symbolic system, the therapists were able to move the family’s awareness from the content level to the symbolic level.

In THE FAMILY CRUCIBLE, Napier (1978) describes the curative process of Whitaker’s family therapy from the perspective of the co-therapist. The courage to embrace life’s absurdities involves the courage to be oneself, to the point of even sharing your free associations and thoughts with families. Daring to participate in the lives of the families, or even inviting them to share in your own life in order to get them in contact with submerged associations, helps families to get to the primary process level. In fact, the book underlines that the force of the therapist is central to treatment, so that the family’s encounter with the therapists is the primary curative agent. The goal of psychotherapy with the Brice family, as with all families, is to provide therapeutic experiences, and questions should be fired off in ways to unbalance the family. When Whitaker asks Carolyn, “When did you divorce your husband and marry the children?” he acts as an agent of change. He does not care whether the client likes him. And it is here that one realizes that the success of the psychotherapy depends on the emotional maturity of the therapist. The person of the therapist is at the heart of what good psychotherapy is all about. Since Whitaker states that therapy for the therapist is crucial, experiential training is essential for the therapist who would provide his/her clients with experiential treatment. In conclusion, this highly readable, inspirational, and useful book deserves a central place on every therapist’s bookshelf.

References

Whitaker, C. A. (1981). Symbolic-experiential family therapy. In A. S. Gurman & D. P.

Knistern (Eds.), Handbook of family therapy (pp. 187-225). New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Napier, A. Y., & Whitaker, C. (1978). The family crucible: The intense experience of

therapy. New York: HarperCollins.



Source by Dr. Barbara Cunningham

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History of Educational Technology


There is no written evidence which can tell us exactly who has coined the phrase educational technology. Different educationists, scientists and philosophers at different time intervals have put forwarded different definitions of Educational Technology. Educational technology is a multifaceted and integrated process involving people, procedure, ideas, devices, and organization, where technology from different fields of science is borrowed as per the need and requirement of education for implementing, evaluating, and managing solutions to those problems involved in all aspects of human learning.

Educational technology, broadly speaking, has passed through five stages.

The first stage of educational technology is coupled with the use of aids like charts, maps, symbols, models, specimens and concrete materials. The term educational technology was used as synonyms to audio-visual aids.

The second stage of educational technology is associated with the ‘electronic revolution’ with the introduction and establishment of sophisticated hardware and software. Use of various audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and television brought a revolutionary change in the educational scenario. Accordingly, educational technology concept was taken in terms of these sophisticated instruments and equipments for effective presentation of instructional materials.

The third stage of educational technology is linked with the development of mass media which in turn led to ‘communication revolution’ for instructional purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) used for education since 1950s also became popular during this era.

The fourth stage of educational technology is discernible by the individualized process of instruction. The invention of programmed learning and programmed instruction provided a new dimension to educational technology. A system of self-learning based on self-instructional materials and teaching machines emerged.

The latest concept of educational technology is influenced by the concept of system engineering or system approach which focuses on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia technologies and the use of the computer in instruction. According to it, educational technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the total process of teaching and learning in terms of specific objectives based on research.

Educational technology during the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age

Educational technology, despite the uncertainty of the origin of the term, can be traced back to the time of the three-age system periodization of human prehistory; namely the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.

Duringthe Stone Age, ignition of fire by rubbing stones, manufacture of various handmade weapon and utensils from stones and clothing practice were some of the simple technological developments of utmost importance. A fraction of Stone Age people developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe ship technology to migrate from one place to another across the Ocean, by which they developed their first informal education of knowledge of the ocean currents, weather conditions, sailing practice, astronavigation, and star maps. During the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period),for agricultural practice, polished stone tools were made from a variety of hard rocks largely by digging underground tunnels, which can be considered as the first steps in mining technology. The polished axes were so effective that even after appearance of bronze and iron; people used it for clearing forest and the establishment of crop farming.

Although Stone Age cultures left no written records, but archaeological evidences proved their shift from nomadic life to agricultural settlement. Ancient tools conserved in different museums, cave paintings like Altamira Cave in Spain, and other prehistoric art, such as the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, France etc. are some of the evidences in favour of their cultures.

Neolithic Revolution of Stone Age resulted into the appearance of Bronze Age with development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of permanent settlements. For these practices Bronze Age people further developed metal smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the materials of their choice.

The Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed the knowledge of iron smelting technology to lower the cost of living since iron utensils were stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last period before the development of written scripts.

Educational technology during the period of Ancient civilizations

According to Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational technology can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systematized bodies of knowledge and ancient cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information. In every stage of human civilization, one can find an instructional technique or set of procedures intended to implement a particular culture which were also supported by number of investigations and evidences. The more advanced the culture, the more complex became the technology of instruction designed to reflect particular ways of individual and social behaviour intended to run an educated society. Over centuries, each significant shift in educational values, goals or objectives led to diverse technologies of instruction.

The greatest advances in technology and engineering came with the rise of the ancient civilizations. These advances stimulated and educated other societies in the world to adopt new ways of living and governance.

The Indus Valley Civilization was an early Bronze Age civilization which was located in the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent. The civilization was primarily flourished around the Indus River basin of the Indus and the Punjab region, extending upto the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the part is under today’s Pakistan and the western states of modern-day India as well as some part of the civilization extending upto southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost part of Balochistan, Iran).

There is a long term controversy to be sure about the language that the Harappan people spoke. It is assumed that their writing was at least seems to be or a pictographic script. The script appears to have had about 400 basic signs, with lots of variations. People write their script with the direction generally from right to left. Most of the writing was found on seals and sealings which were probably used in trade and official & administrative work.

Harappan people had the knowledge of the measuring tools of length, mass, and time. They were the first in the world to develop a system of uniform weights and measures.

In a study carried out by P. N. Rao et al. in 2009, published in Science, computer scientists found that the Indus script’s pattern is closer to that of spoken words, which supported the proposed hypothesis that it codes for an as-yet-unknown language.

According to the Chinese Civilization, some of the major techno-offerings from China include paper, early seismological detectors, toilet paper, matches, iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the suspension bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the blast furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder. With the invent of paper they have given their first step towards developments of educational technology by further culturing different handmade products of paper as means of visual aids.

Ancient Egyptian language was at one point one of the longest surviving and used languages in the world. Their script was made up of pictures of the real things like birds, animals, different tools, etc. These pictures are popularly called hieroglyph. Their language was made up of above 500 hieroglyphs which are known as hieroglyphics. On the stone monuments or tombs which were discovered and rescued latter on provides the evidence of existence of many forms of artistic hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt.

Educational technology during Medieval and Modern Period

Paper and the pulp papermaking process which was developed in China during the early 2nd century AD, was carried to the Middle East and was spread to Mediterranean by the Muslim conquests. Evidences support that a paper mill was also established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of spinning wheel increased the productivity of thread making process to a great extent and when Lynn White added the spinning wheel with increasing supply of rags, this led to the production of cheap paper, which was a prime factor in the development of printing technology.

The invention of the printing press was taken place in approximately 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The invention of printing press was a prime developmental factor in the history of educational technology to convey the instruction as per the need of the complex and advanced-technology cultured society.

In the pre-industrial phases, while industry was simply the handwork at artisan level, the instructional processes were relied heavily upon simple things like the slate, the horn book, the blackboard, and chalk. It was limited to a single text book with a few illustrations. Educational technology was considered synonymous to simple aids like charts and pictures.

The year 1873 may be considered a landmark in the early history of technology of education or audio-visual education. An exhibition was held in Vienna at international level in which an American school won the admiration of the educators for the exhibition of maps, charts, textbooks and other equipments.

Maria Montessori (1870-1952), internationally renowned child educator and the originator of Montessori Method exerted a dynamic impact on educational technology through her development of graded materials designed to provide for the proper sequencing of subject matter for each individual learner. Modern educational technology suggests many extension of Montessori’s idea of prepared child centered environment.

In1833, Charles Babbage’s design of a general purpose computing device laid the foundation of the modern computer and in 1943, the first computing machine as per hi design was constructed by International Business Machines Corporation in USA. The Computer Assisted instruction (CAI) in which the computer functions essentially as a tutor as well as the Talking Type writer was developed by O.K. Moore in 1966. Since 1974, computers are interestingly used in education in schools, colleges and universities.

In the beginning of the 19th century, there were noteworthy changes in the field of education. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), right from its start of school broadcasts in 1920 had maintained rapid pace in making sound contribution to formal education. In the USA, by 1952, 20 states had the provision for educational broadcasting. Parallel to this time about 98% of the schools in United Kingdom were equipped with radios and there were regular daily programmes.

Sidney L. Pressey, a psychologist of Ohio state university developed a self-teaching machine called ‘Drum Tutor’ in 1920. Professor Skinner, however, in his famous article ‘Science of Learning and art of Teaching’ published in 1945 pleaded for the application of the knowledge derived from behavioral psychology to classroom procedures and suggested automated teaching devices as means of doing so.

Although the first practical use of Regular television broadcasts was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin were broadcasted through television stations in Berlin, Open circuit television began to be used primarily for broadcasting programmes for entertainment in 1950. Since 1960, television is used for educational purposes.

In 1950, Brynmor, in England, used educational technological steps for the first time. It is to be cared that in 1960, as a result of industrial revolution in America and Russia, other countries also started progressing in the filed of educational technology. In this way, the beginning of educational technology took place in 1960 from America and Russia and now it has reached England, Europe and India.

During the time of around 1950s, new technocracy was turning it attraction to educations when there was a steep shortage of teachers in America and therefore an urgent need of educational technology was felt. Dr. Alvin C. Eurich and a little later his associate, Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard introduced mass production technology in America.

Team teaching had its origin in America in the mid of 1950’s and was first started in the year 1955 at Harvard University as a part of internship plan.

In the year 1956, Benjamin Bloom from USA introduced the taxonomy of educational objectives through his publication, “The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain”.

In 1961, Micro teaching technique was first adopted by Dwight W. Allen and his co-workers at Stanford University in USA.

Electronics is the main technology being developed in the beginning of 21st century. Broadband Internet access became popular and occupied almost all the important offices and educational places and even in common places in developed countries with the advantage of connecting home computers with music libraries and mobile phones.

Today’s classroom is more likely to be a technology lab, a room with rows of students using internet connected or Wi-Fi enabled laptops, palmtops, notepad, or perhaps students are attending a video conferencing or virtual classroom or may have been listening to a podcast or taking in a video lecture. Rapid technological changes in the field of educational have created new ways to teach and to learn. Technological changes also motivated the teachers to access a variety of information on a global scale via the Internet, to enhance their lessons as well as to make them competent professional in their area of concern. At the same time, students can utilize vast resources of the Internet to enrich their learning experience to cope up with changing trend of the society. Now a days students as well teachers are attending seminars, conferences, workshops at national and international level by using the multimedia techno-resources like PowerPoint and even they pursue a variety of important courses of their choice in distance mode via online learning ways. Online learning facility has opened infinite number of doors of opportunities for today’s learner to make their life happier than ever before.



Source by Sanjoy Deka

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Wrinkled Penis Skin – Causes, Treatments and Preventive Measures


A man has plenty to worry about in terms of the health and appearance of his penis – whether it be concerns about the size and shape, preventing injuries and disease or making sure it is functioning well enough to please himself and his partners. On top of all these worries, many men – even those as young as their twenties – report anxiety about the appearance of wrinkled penis skin. Fortunately, sagging, dry penis skin is generally not a sign of poor penis health, and in many cases, men are able to take steps to restore their equipment to its former glory. Here are just a few of the issues that can cause a wrinkled appearance, as well as some tips for smoothing and plumping the skin.

What causes a wrinkled penis?

1) Erections. Obviously, when the penis expands during an erection, the skin needs to stretch along with it. When an erection is present, the skin will appear taut and smooth, but once it retracts, the skin that was formerly stretched has nothing to fill it out; therefore, it tends to look a bit bunched and saggy. This issue is more evident in “growers” (men whose penises dramatically increase in size when erect) than “show-ers” (those whose size tends to remain fairly uniform, with only stiffening of the tissue to indicate an erection).

2) Frequent masturbation. Men who have been masturbating regularly for years, especially those who do not use a lubricant during the process, may experience some breakdown of the collagen tissue that gives the penile skin its elasticity and shape. The result is skin that doesn’t quite spring back into place easily after a masturbation session, and the foreskin in particular can appear a bit stretched and loose.

3) Yeast infections. Many men notice that, when they have a yeast infection (a fungal infection that can be passed between sexual partners), the glans and foreskin tend to take on a dry, wrinkled appearance. Elimination of the infection with medications generally resolves this problem, although healing can take some time. A high-quality moisturizer can help to alleviate the shriveled look.

4) Balanitis. Like yeast infections, the inflammatory condition known as balanitis can cause wrinkles or dryness on the glans. Balanitis is usually the result of substandard hygiene. Keeping the area clean and applying a moisturizer can generally clear up the problem.

5) Dehydration. Women are often told that the appearance of wrinkles and bags under their eyes is the result of dehydration. The same thing goes for the equally delicate penile skin – men who do not have a sufficient intake of fluid may notice that their members appear wrinkled and unattractive.

6) Aging. Finally, there’s no getting around it – as men get older, the collagen that gives the skin its tone and texture tends to thin and break down, and a wrinkled look is the natural result.

Reducing the appearance of wrinkled penile skin

While the skin of the penis will always be a little looser when the member is flaccid – after all, it needs room to expand whenever an erection occurs – there are some steps men can take to improve the overall appearance of the penis and make sure the skin is as resilient and supple as possible.

To start, a guy needs to make sure he is well-hydrated; getting enough fluids can plump out the skin and keep it looking fresh. He should also get plenty of exercise to make sure the heart is pumping enough blood through the veins. An adequate supply of blood is needed to nourish the penile tissue and allow it to appear healthy and vibrant. Nutrition is also an important consideration – a man should be eating a balanced diet of lean proteins, heart-healthy fats and high-quality carbohydrates to provide the nutrients the skin needs to stay strong and elastic.

Finally, a man can improve the look and feel of his penile skin by including a top-drawer penis health crème (health professionals recommend Man1 Man Oil) as part of his daily personal care regimen. Applying a moisturizing cream that is fortified with vitamins, amino acids and antioxidants can help men to fight off wrinkle-causing free radicals and to maintain healthy and youthful skin tone.



Source by John Dugan

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The Effect of Speed on Vision While Driving


Visual Acuity

One of the primary effects of speed is to decrease for objects in the foreground, which are rendered unclear because of the motion and vibration of the car. Investigation has shown that this range of sub standard foreground vision increases by approximately 20 feet for each increase of 10 miles per hour in speed. Thus at 20 miles per hour we cannot see details clearly within 40 feet ahead of the car; at 60 miles per hour, not within 120 feet or more.

Let us imagine a driver with 20/20 visual acuity driving at 60 miles per hour. There is a highway sign ahead with three lines of writing on it. This driver does not know the area – his memory cannot be of any help – so he must read the sign. We have seen earlier that this driver can read 5 inch letters from 280 feet. We now know that when his car reaches a point 120 feet from the sign, he cannot clearly see the details. He has only 160 feet, or 1.8 seconds, to read the sign.

A driver with 20/60 vision cannot see that same sign before he reaches a point 93 feet from it – but his close up vision is affected the same as the first driver’s. Will this driver be able to read a three line message? The problem of reduced close up vision explains why some drivers make emergency stops or slow down abruptly at road junctions, especially at super highway exits. You must always be aware of this danger and be ready for any sudden action by other drivers. If you know the area you are driving in, a short glance at the sign will be sufficient – but remember that strangers who do not know their way will need longer periods of time.

Road departments, having studied this problem, use symbols as much as possible, or make the written message as brief as they can. Super highways always have signs with large and easily read letters.

Field of Vision

Your field of vision is reduced by concentration and speed. When you concentrate on one single object, the field of vision is nil – which is generally what happens with new drivers, because they tend to stare at what they believe to be important. Field of vision is also narrowed by speed. When stopped, a driver’s field of vision may be as high as 190 degrees, but for the same person, the angle will be narrowed to 40 degrees at 60 miles per hour. That is why, whenever possible, highway signs are positioned above the roadway.

Distance Judgment

Good distance judgment is dependent on good visual acuity. Since acuity is reduced by speed, distance judgment will also be adversely affected when you are driving fast.



Source by Kris Kolanko

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Silky Smooth Penis Skin – How to Keep Penis Skin Smooth and Supple to Increase Sexual Pleasure


Silky smooth penis skin is just so touchable and luxuriant, especially to anyone lucky enough to enjoy this lovely tactile experience. It also means that the penis skin is healthy and cared for, and when skin of the penis is in optimal condition, it is invigorated and more sensitive and receptive to stimulation. This, of course, leads to better sex and improves sexual function.

Ignoring Penis Skin Can Lead to Problems

There are many problems associated with ignoring the skin of the penis. These include:

Penis skin that is not cared for can become dry and scaly – This is unsightly and does not encourage sexual activity. In fact, it can be a real turn-off for your partner, and may even reduce sexual confidence.

Penis skin can become desensitized – If the skin of the penis is not cared for then it can become hardened and not as receptive to the touch. This means that sexual excitement can be reduced during foreplay and sexual intercourse, which can reduce the intensity of climax and overall sexual satisfaction.

Penis skin is a protective barrier – Healthy skin of the penis protects the human body from infection and illness as it forms a protective barrier between major organs and the outside world. With cracked or broken skin of the penis it is possible, during sexual intercourse and masturbation, to have harmful bacteria enter the body and create illness.

Penis skin is an insulator – When the skin of the penis is in optimal condition it maintains the temperature of the penis. This, of course, prevents the penis from feeling the cold more than it should, which means that its size and functionality is maintained.

What Does Silky Smooth Penis Skin Mean to You and Your Partner?

With healthy penis skin comes more pleasure. The skin of the penis has an improved sensitivity and this then creates a more dynamic sex life. Plus, it is enjoyable to touch, which will increase the longevity of foreplay and the likelihood of fellatio, if this is what you and your partner enjoy. It may also encourage your partner to be more adventurous, and experiment in the bedroom, taking their time to stroke, fondle and tickle your penis, further heightening your climax.

Better Sex with Better Penis Skin

A satisfying sex life leads to happiness and contentment, but with healthy penis skin often a new found confidence is gained. Not only does the penis look good, but it feels great. This may then lead to more sex and a possible increase in sexual enjoyment, especially, if previously, the owner of the penis felt self-conscious of the condition of their skin.

How to Get Smooth Silky Penis Skin

The best way to improve the health of your penis skin is as follows:

Eat a balanced diet that includes mono-saturated fats – This is a healthy fat that prevents your skin from becoming dry and flaky. Some great sources of this are olive oil, nuts, and mackerel, as well as herring, tomatoes, avocado, and egg yolk.

Use a natural cleansing product – Avoid dyed and perfumed skin cleansing products for cleansing the penis, instead use natural cleansers such as, goat milk or olive oil soap.

Don’t exfoliate – Some areas of the skin are more sensitive than others. So, while it is okay to exfoliate say the legs, arms, and torso, it is not recommended that the skin of the penis be treated in the same manner. Exfoliating this area of the body will decrease sensitivity and could possibly lead to the hardening of the skin. This, in turn, will lessen sexual excitement and pleasure, and may even reduce sexual function.

Apply a penis specific moisturizer daily – Use a penis specific creme daily (health professionals often recommend Man1 Man Oil) which is rich in essential vitamins and minerals. Products such as this are said to increase penis skin elasticity and sensitivity, as well appearance, and can improve sexual function and pleasure.



Source by John Dugan

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Gods of Gambling


People like to gamble, they place bets to have fun or to earn extra cash. When they feel lucky or when someone is watching over them, they simply want to take a chance, to prove that fortune smiles on them, and betting / gambling is no exception.

Praying to God for a team to win a specific game in order for you to win a bet is more or less selfish when there are still so many bad things in the world. But what about those ancient gods of the past, people believed in them and prayed to them for fortune. The different mythologies of the world reveal powerful deities that rule over the world of gambling. Here are some of the gods that can influence the outcome of a football match in our favor:

Hermes is the Greek god of gambling, profit, hazard, and gaming. Hermes was the winged messenger of the gods. He was the god of flocks, road, trading, commerce, thieves. He is also known as Mercury in Roman Mythology. His father is Zeus, the ruler of the Greek gods.

Thoth is the Egyptian god of gambling. He had the same attributes like the Greek god, Hermes. He is the creator of magic, the inventor of writing, the messenger of the gods and the divine record-keeper and mediator. According to myth, he earned 5 extra days by gambling with the moon (then known as Iabet) in a game of dice to help the sky goddess Nut to have her children.

Macuilxochitl, (five flowers, also called Xochipilli) is the Aztec god of gambling, music, dancing. He was the god of games, from board games (Patolli) to the Aztec version of football (Ullamaliztli). Generally represented as a god of fun and dancing, Xochipilli could also send venereal disease to anyone who violates abstentions by engaging in sexual intercourse.

Li-Nezha is the Chinese god of gambling. He is probably the only one of the Chinese Gods that can reveal the winning numbers in lottery. Li-Nezha is perhaps more well-known as Nataku or Nata from Japanese anime a half-mortal war god. In ancient times mortals worship him as a God of Lotteries and Gambling.

Lakshmi, is the Hindu goddess of wealth, prosperity and fortune. Lakshmi is the consort of the god Vishnu. Hindus believe that anybody who worships Lakshmi sincerely, and not in greed, will be blessed with fortune and success. After worshipping Lakshmi on Diwali, many Hindus gamble and spend profusely, believing that Lakshmi has bestowed good fortune upon them.

Nohoilpi – The gambling god of the Navajo. Also called “He Who Wins Men”. He is a renegade son of the sun god Tsohanoai. He came down to Earth and taught his gambling games to the various tribes but soon abused his power by overcoming them at all his games of chance and collecting his winnings by enslaving people to build a city to mark his glory. He was defeated at gambling by a Navajo man send by the other gods and was thrown into the sky.



Source by Avidal Moreno

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